Learn to read our satellite charts by studying the table below.

Description Information
Orbital Location(degrees)
(Satellite Name)
Band | Encryption | # of Channels
Basic information about the orbital location, satellite name and number of channels found.
Transponder Info
Transponder #
Frequency (MHz) - Polarity
Transmission Standard
Modulation Scheme
Symbol rate (kSymbols/sec) - FEC Rate
The three most important parameters for tuning a satellite signal are: frequency, symbol rate and polarity.

The frequency range for C-band signals is usually between 3400 MHz to 4200 MHz. The frequency range for ku-band signals is usually between 11600 MHz to 12750 MHz.

The symbol rate is indicative of the bandwidth of the signal and is usually denoted in kilo symbols/sec. For example, a symbol rate of 30,000 is understood to mean thirty million symbols per second. In general, the higher the symbol rate, the better the picture quality.

The polarity of the satellite signal refers to the orientation of the signal in space. It can be linearly polarized in the horizontal (H) direction or vertical (V) direction. Satellite signals can also be circularly polarized, meaning they rotate left (L) or rotate right (R). You need a linear LNB to decode a linearly polarized signals and a circular LNB to decode circularly polarized signals. A dielectric plate or a phase shifter is often used to transform circular signals into linear signals.
Service ID
Unique identifier for each video, audio or date service.
Beam Info
Beam Footprint
Signal quality obtained with a 2.4m dish
Minimum dish size for reliable reception
Minimum Carrier/Noise Lock ratio
Last update
Click on the beam footprint to view the actual footprint. The higher the EIRP value, the stronger the signal will be. For your reference, we indicate a signal quality that was a obtained with a 2.4m C-band dish located in Buffalo, NY.

0-20% = NO signal lock

20-40% = signal locks most of the time

40-100% = signal locks all the time

For your reference, we also indicate the minimum dish size needed for reliable reception throughout North America.

The C/N ratio is the minimum carrier power above the noise floor required to decode the signal. In theory, the more complex the transmission scheme and the higher the FEC rate, the higher the C/N. In practise, the higher the C/N ratio, the larger the dish aperture required for reliable reception.

DVB-S signals with FEC=3/4 have a C/N = 5.5 whereas DVB-S2 signals with FEC = 5/6 have a C/N = 9.4
Logo that identifies the broadcaster of the signal. Most C-band signals are master signals transmitted directly by the broadcaster. They are high bit-rate and relatively uncompressed signals. Since these signals originate directly from the broadcaster, they are known as master or studio signals and are of the highest standard resulting in the best picture quality possible.

All other satellite transmissions originate from DTH broadcasters such as Dish, DirecTV, Bell, Shaw, Claro, etc. These signals are compressed transmissions of the original master signals.

If you compare a master signal with the same compressed DTH signal, the difference in picture quality is breathtaking! Most master HDTV signals have bit rates between 10-30 MBits/sec, whereas the retransmitted and compressed version of the signal is almost always less than 3Mbits/sec depending on the DTH or cable provider.
Click on the broadcaster's logo to go to their website for programming information.
The genre category helps you find programming you are interested in. Try searching for channels by genre.
The encryption category describes how the signal is scrambled, if scrambled at all. Signals listed as FTA (free-to-air) are being broadcast in the clear and can be viewed by anyone with the right equipment. Encryption standards known to be secure are described as such beneath the encryption standard. If the encryption is publicly known to be compromised, it will be classified as such in our charts.

The most common encryption systems used in C-band transmissions are: PowerVu, Digicipher 2, Irdeto, BISS, Verimatrix, Viaccess, Nagravision and more.
Audio PID - Language. Every video signal has one or more audio signals multiplexed together in the transmission. Each audio signal is associated with a unique number known as the APID. Beside the APID you will find the audio language.

If the APID and language are in (brackets) the audio signal is coded in AC3, otherwise, it is coded in MPEG.
Channel Name
Click on the channel name to find all related and mirror channels. Many broadcasters transmit their signals over several satellites. For example, a search for CNN shows that there are at least 19 different versions and feeds of the signal in operation.
Bit Rate (MBits/sec) - Compression Codec
Resolution - Definition
The bit rate is the best indicator of the picture and audio quality of the signal. The higher the bit-rate, the better the picture the quality. MPEG4 encoded signals produce a better picture quality than MPEG2 signals, assuming the same bit-rate.

HDTV signals with bit-rates exceeding 10Mbits/sec have a truly outstanding picture quality!!!
Chroma Sampling Rate
The video PID (VPID) is simply a unique identifier for the video signal. Chroma subsampling is a method of encoding color information in video.

The most common chroma encoding is 4:2:0 and all FTA receivers can handle this codec. Some signals are coded using 4:2:2 and can only be decoded with the appropriate receiver. The Azbox series of receivers are capable of handling 4:2:2 signals.
The flag identifies the country of origin of the broadcast.
Proprietary Standard
Transponder info shaded in "dark grey" indicates a Digicipher 2 encoded signal. Most C-band satellite transmissions use the DVB-S or DVB-S2 transmission standard. Some broadcasters still use a legacy and proprietary transmission standard known as Digicipher 2. Most FTA receivers cannot tune such signals and they will never show up after a blind scan, even if they are FTA. There are some tuner cards (e.g. Skywalker 1) that can tune such signals and display them on a computer.

Digicipher 2 encoded signals are being upgraded to DVB-S2 by more and more broadcasters to save bandwidth and the Digicipher 2 legacy standard will probably become obsolete in the near future.
Radio Services
Radio services are displayed in smaller and italic font to distinguish them from video sevices.
Feeds are identified by a "Feed" logo. Feeds are used by broadcasters on an occassional basis to transmit sports, news, events and other content that isn't usually broadcast on regular channels.

Some feeds are predictable and broadcast on a daily or weekly basis at the same time of day, while others completely unpredictable and known as wild feeds.

Our charts only display feeds that transmit on a regular basis. Check our forum for postings of live wild feeds.

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